Family Lycosidae

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1

Prosoma in lateral view with gradually descending thoracic region; cheliceral retromargin with 3 teeth; large to very large spiders (15-35 mm). Burrowing groups (in deep burrows)

  2  

speciesimage
female Prosoma, lateral view
(Zyuzin 1990)
speciesimage
female Prosoma, lateral view
(Alderweireldt & Jocqué 1991)
-

Prosoma in lateral view with clear steeper region behind fovea; cheliceral retromargin with 2 or 3 teeth; small to medium spiders (< 20 mm). Non-burrowing groups (ground-dwellers or in shallow silky retreats)

  5  

speciesimage
female Prosoma, lateral view
(Zyuzin 1990)
2
(1)

Second row of eyes distinctly wider than anterior row; anterior row of eyes recurved; tarsi I + II with scopulae (Sc) and spinules (Sp)

  3  

speciesimage
female Tarsus I
(Logunov 2010a)
-

Second row of eyes about equal to anterior row; anterior row of eyes straight; tarsi I + II with dense scopulae (Sc) only (no spinules)

  4  

speciesimage
female Prosoma, frontal view
(Zyuzin 1985)
speciesimage
female Tarsus I
(Logunov 2010a)
3
(2)

Median apophysis (MA) of palpus hook-shaped; embolus-shaped synembolus (Sb) present; septal pedicel (SP) of epigyne present and distinct, with proximal elevation (PE)

Lycosa

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Logunov 2010a)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Zyuzin & Logunov 2000)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Logunov 2010a)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Zyuzin & Logunov 2000)
-

Median apophysis (MA) wide and bulging; synembolus absent; septal pedicel absent. Monotypic genus known from Andalucia (Spain) only

Donacosa

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Alderweireldt & Jocqué 1991)
speciesimage
male Embolus
(Alderweireldt & Jocqué 1991)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Alderweireldt & Jocqué 1991)
4
(2)

AME diameter/clypeus height ratio 1.3-1.6; median apophysis (MA) of palpus with a distal prominence (arrowed); median septum (MS) of epigyne anchor-shaped, with short septal pedicel (SP)

 

Allohogna -> under Lycosa


speciesimage
male Bulbus, ventral view
(Marusik et al. 2003)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Marusik et al. 2003)
-

AME diameter/clypeus height ratio 0.7; median apophysis of palpus with a proximal-ventral sharpened tooth (arrowed); septal pedicel (SP) of epigyne long, fused with epigynal atrium in its proximal half

Geolycosa

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Zyuzin & Logunov 2000)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Zyuzin & Logunov 2000)
5
(1)

Opisthosoma without cardiac mark; palpus with deep apical hollow of tegulum in which embolus is situated (arrowed); epigynal atrium (A) shallow and paired, contrasting in colour (whitish) to the entire epigynal plate

  6  

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Zyuzin 1985)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Zyuzin 1985)
-

Opisthosoma with cardiac mark (sometimes indistinct); palpus without deep apical hollow of tegulum; epigynal atrium (if present) is of the same colour as the entire epigynal plate

  7  

6
(5)

Metatarsus I with 3-4 pairs of ventral spines (apart from apical); tibia I with 4-6 pairs of long ventral spines (apart from apical); tarsus of all legs with pseudo-articulation (arrowed, not in all species); prosoma with transverse depression behind ocular area; body length 5.5-11 mm

Evippa

speciesimage
female Prosoma, lateral and dorsal view
(Alderweireldt 1991)
speciesimage
female Tarsus IV, lateral view
(Alderweireldt 1991)
-

Metatarsus I with 2 pairs of ventral spines (apart from apical); tibia I with 3 or fewer pairs of long ventral spines (apart from apical); tarsus without pseudo-articulation; prosoma without transverse depression; body length 5-7 mm

Xerolycosa

speciesimage
Eyes, dorsal view
(Bellmann 1997)
7
(5)

Palpal patellae white in both sexes; prosoma anteriorly narrow, as wide as the eye region; body length ≤ 4 mm

Aulonia

speciesimage
female Prosoma, frontal view
(Zyuzin 1985)
speciesimage
Habitus
(Dahl 1937)
-

Palpal patellae not white; prosoma anteriorly clearly wider than the eye region; body length > 4 mm

  8  

speciesimage
female Prosoma, frontal view
(Zyuzin 1985)
8
(7)

Prosoma without bright midline band

  9  

speciesimage
Habitus
(Fuhn & Niculescu-Burlacu 1971)
speciesimage
Habitus
(Lugetti & Tongiorgi 1965)
-

Prosoma with bright midline band, distinctly marked off from dark sides, if indistinct then V-shaped pattern present

  10  

speciesimage
female Habitus
(Lugetti & Tongiorgi 1969)
9
(8)

Legs clearly spotted or annulated; copulatory organs as illustrated; body length < 15 mm

Arctosa

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Lugetti & Tongiorgi 1965)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Lugetti & Tongiorgi 1965)
speciesimage
Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
Habitus
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
-

Legs not spotted or annulated; copulatory organs as illustrated; body length 15-18 mm. The type species is endemic to the French and Italian Alps (1800-2700 m a.s.l.)

Vesubia

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Lugetti & Tongiorgi 1969)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Tongiorgi 1968)
speciesimage
Eyes, frontal view
(Tongiorgi 1968)
10
(8)

Tibia I + II with 4-7 pairs of ventral spines; legs conspicuously long; dark body coloration with no or poorly marked pattern

  11  

-

Tibia I + II with 3 or fewer pairs of ventral spines, if 4 or more pairs present then body with clear; bright body colour pattern

  12  

11
(10)

Tibia I with 4-7 pairs of ventral spines; palpal palea with two processes (PP); embolus thick, usually with basal tooth (ET); singular apical epigynal pocket (EP) visibly narrower than median septum; long insemination ducts; body length 6.5-11 mm

Acantholycosa

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Marusik et al. 2004b)
speciesimage
male Bulbus
(Marusik et al. 2004b)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Marusik et al. 2004b)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Marusik et al. 2004b)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Dahl 1937)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Dahl 1937)
-

Tibia I with 6-7 pairs of ventral spines; palpal palea with poorly developed processes (PP) looking like bulges; embolus thin (E); paired apical epigynal pockets (EP) visibly wider than median septum; short insemination ducts; body length 7-10 mm

Pyrenecosa

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Buchar & Thaler 1993)
speciesimage
male Bulbus
(Marusik et al. 2004b)
speciesimage
female Epigyne/vulva
(Buchar & Thaler 1993)
12
(10)

Midline band of prosoma with dark markings (sometimes indistinct)

  13  

-

Midline band of prosoma without dark markings

  15  

13
(12)

Cephalic region with 2 dark parallel bars medially; AME > ALE; leg I in males often darkened; body length 7-18 mm

Trochosa

speciesimage
female Prosoma, frontal view
(Zyuzin 1985)
speciesimage
Prosoma, dorsal view
(Bellmann 1997)
speciesimage
Prosoma
(Wiebes 1959)
-

Cephalic region with forked dark marking; AME ≥ ALE; leg I in males never darkened; body length 2.5-9 mm. Most species inhabit marshy areas

  14  

speciesimage
Prosoma
(Wiebes 1959)
14
(13)

AME > ALE; prosoma length > 3 mm; median apophysis (MA) of palpus small, situated at the distal end of tegulum; median apophysis without teeth; subtegulum (St) > ½ tegulum length; prolateral spine on tibia I in females absent

Pirata

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Snazell 1983b)
speciesimage
male Bulbus
(Omelko et al. 2011)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1998)
speciesimage
female Prosoma, frontal view
(Zyuzin 1985)
-

AME ± equal ALE; prosoma length < 3mm; median apophysis (MA) of palpus large (C-shaped), occupying almost a third of the genital bulb; median apophysis with 1-2 teeth; subtegulum (St) < ½ tegulum height; prolateral spine on tibia I in females present

Piratula

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Locket & Millidge 1951)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1998)
speciesimage
female Prosoma, frontal view
(Zyuzin 1985)
15
(12)

Tegulum of palpus with processes

  16  

-

Tegulum of palpus without processes

  17  

16
(15)

Tegulum with two prolateral processes (PTP); sternum in both sexes without spines; epigyne with median septum (MS) tapering backwards; epigyne with two separated fovea (F) in anterior position; body length 6-7 mm

Wadicosa

speciesimage
male Bulbus
(Kronestedt & Zyuzin 2009)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Kronestedt & Zyuzin 2009)
-

Tegulum with two median processes (MTP); sternum in males with numerous spines; epigyne with median septum (MS) widening backwards; epigyne without atrium or separated fovea; body length 5.5-8.2 mm. Monotypic genus known from south-eastern areas of European Russia (Astrakhan region)

Bogdocosa

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Ponomarev et al. 2008)
speciesimage
male Bulbus
(Ponomarev et al. 2008)
speciesimage
male Sternum
(Ponomarev et al. 2008)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Ponomarev et al. 2008)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(-- N/A -- )
17
(15)

Median apophysis (MA) of palpus massive, occupying a half or more of the length of genital bulb; embolus hair-like (E); median septum of epigyne small, triangular and depressed (one species in Europe, see comment under T. brunhesi)

Trebacosa

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Szinetár & Kancsal 2007)
speciesimage
male Embolic division
(Szinetár & Kancsal 2007)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Villepoux 2007)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Villepoux 2007)
-

Median apophysis of palpus clearly less than a half of the length of genital bulb; embolus different; median septum of epigyne larger and not depressed

  18  

18
(17)

Palea of palpus with strong prolateral process (PP); paired apical pockets of epigyne; deep paired epigynal atrium (A); narrow, anchor-shaped median septum (MS); tibia I + II with 2 pairs of ventral spines (apart from apical); body length 5.7-8 mm

Caspicosa

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, retrolateral view
(Ponomarev 2007b)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(-- N/A -- )
speciesimage
male Bulbus
(-- N/A -- )
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(-- N/A -- )
speciesimage
female Spermathecae, redrawn after
(Ponomarev 2007b)
-

Copulatory organs different

  19  

19
(18)

AME < ALE; sternum with six dark spots; prosoma with bright median band and two bright lateral bands; body length ≤ 5 mm

Hygrolycosa

speciesimage
female Prosoma, dorsal view
(Wiebes 1959)
speciesimage
female Sternum
(Fuhn & Niculescu-Burlacu 1971)
speciesimage
female Sternum
(Fuhn & Niculescu-Burlacu 1971)
speciesimage
Habitus
(Fuhn & Niculescu-Burlacu 1971)
-

AME ≥ ALE; sternum without six dark spots; prosoma different

  20  

20
(19)

Prosoma square-fronted; PME diameter /AME diameter ratio ≥ 3.6; cymbium of palpus with two parallel apical rows of flattened setae (arrowed); copulatory organs as illustrated; body length 3-8 mm

Trabea

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Tongiorgi 1968)
speciesimage
male Tip of cymbium
(Russell-Smith 1982)
speciesimage
male Prosoma, lateral and dorsal view
(Russell-Smith 1982)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Tongiorgi 1968)
-

Prosoma different; PME diameter/AME diameter ratio ≤ 2.8; copulatory organs different

  21  

21
(20)

Sides of head vertical; AME diameter /clypeus height ratio ≤ 0.7; small to medium slender species; body length 4-10 mm

Pardosa

speciesimage
female Prosoma, frontal view
(Zyuzin 1985)
speciesimage
Prosoma, dorsal view
(Bellmann 1997)
-

Sides of head moderately sloping; AME diameter/clypeus height ratio ≥ 0.7; medium to large species

  22  

speciesimage
female Prosoma, frontal view
(Kovblyuk 2009)
22
(21)

Cheliceral retromargin with 3 teeth

  23  

-

Cheliceral retromargin with 2 teeth

  24  

23
(22)

Opisthosoma globular; posterior spinnerets visibly elongated (arrowed); palea of palpus with two sickle-shaped processes (arrowed); epigyne with very narrow median septum (MS) and short septal pedicel (SP); body length 12-18 mm

Ocyale

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Alderweireldt 1996a)
speciesimage
female Habitus
(Alderweireldt 1996a)
-

Opisthosoma elongated; posterior spinnerets not elongated; palea of palpus with one sickle-shaped process (Sb, arrowed); septal pedicel (SP) of epigyne long; body length 9-25 mm

Hogna

speciesimage
male Bulbus, apical view
(Loksa 1972)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Fuhn & Niculescu-Burlacu 1971)
speciesimage
female Habitus
(Fuhn & Niculescu-Burlacu 1971)
24
(22)

Synembolus (Sb) of palpus reduced to a pointed prominence; median apophysis (MA) oriented transversely, with a pointed tooth at its tip; median septum of epigyne usually anchor- or pear-shaped; opisthosoma usually with cardiac mark

Alopecosa

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Lugetti & Tongiorgi 1969)
speciesimage
male Embolus
(Kronestedt 1990)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Lugetti & Tongiorgi 1969)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Lugetti & Tongiorgi 1969)
-

Synembolus (Sb) well-developed; conformation of copulatory organs different

  25  

speciesimage
male Bulbus
(Kovblyuk 2009)
speciesimage
male Embolus, apical view
(Logunov 2013)
25
(24)

Length of massive median apophysis (MA) of palpus exceeds tegular width; epigyne length 2.5 times longer that its width; septal pedicel (SP) fused with epigynal atrium in its proximal half; body length 10-11 mm. Monotypic genus known from the Crimea only

Deliriosa

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Kovblyuk 2009)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Kovblyuk 2009)
-

Conformation of copulatory organs different; body length 9-12 mm

Mustelicosa

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Marusik & Buchar 2004)
speciesimage
male Tegular apophysis, ventral view
(Marusik & Buchar 2004)
speciesimage
female Epigyne, ventral view
(Marusik & Buchar 2004)
speciesimage
female Vulva, dorsal view
(Marusik & Buchar 2004)

This key has kindly been provided by Dmitri Logunov.


The following genera, mentioned for Europe, have not been included into this key:


  1. Allocosa includes small to medium sized wolf spiders occurring in warm temperate and tropical zones of the Western Hemisphere (Dondale & Redner 1990), therefore the presence of Allocosa species in Europe is quite doubtful. The European “Allocosa” species that are better known (e.g.,A. fasciiventris) have already been assigned to Lycosa (see Planas et al. 2013).
  2. Megarctosa seems to be a junior synonym of Lycosa (Wunderlich 1984: 23). The only European species (M. naccai Caporiacco, 1948) is the type species of Megarctosa that remains known from the female holotype and from the type locality (Greece) only; the taxonomic status of M. naccai and its validity requires a special study in the future.
  3. Schizocosa is the genus containing 21 valid species and being restricted to North America only (Dondale & Redner 1990). The only European species, S. krynickii (Thorell, 1875), has been transferred to Alopecosa (see Logunov 2013, for a discussion). Therefore, the genus Schizocosa is excluded from the European spider fauna.
  4. Trochosula = Hogna (see Platnick 2014).
Further genera

1Allocosa
2Megarctosa