Family Linyphiidae

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1

Tibia IV with one dorsal bristle

 

N.B.: This key to the linyphiid genera is based on Heimer & Nentwig (1991) and needs to be completely revised.

An alternative online key to linyphiid species is provided by Anna Stäubli.

  2  

-

Tibia IV with 2 dorsal bristles

  85  

2
(1)
Metatarsus I with one dorsal bristle

  3  

- Metatarsus I without dorsal bristle

  4  

3
(2)
Cymbium of male pedipalp with dorsal spur bearing stout bristles distally; epigyne backwardly elongated, deeply divided

Sintula

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
- Cymbium with small spur at most and without stout bristles

Centromerus

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1956)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1956)
4
(2)
Tibia I-II ventrally with single, stout bristles in a double row, not row of bristles like in Hypselistes or Pocadicnemis

  5  

- Tibia I-II ventrally without spines

  7  

5
(4)
Metatarsus IV dorsally with 1 trichobothrium

  6  

- Metatarsus IV without trichobothria

Satilatlas

6
(5)
Tibia and Metatarsus I-II ventrally with short, stout spines and long bristles respectively; prosoma ± unicoloured grey

Maso

- Metatarsus I-II without ventral spines; Prosoma with distinct dark margin and median stripe

Minicia

speciesimage
male Prosoma, lateral view
(Denis 1965c)
7
(4)
Metatarsus IV with trichobothria

  8  

- Metatarsus IV without trichobothria

  36  

8
(7)
Trichobothrium on metatarsus I at 0.35-0.6

  9  

speciesimage
Metatarsus I
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
- Trichobothrium on metatarsus I > 0.6

  18  

9
(8)
Trichobothrium on metatarsus I < 0.4

  10  

- Trichobothrium on metatarsus I at 0.4-0.6

  13  

10
(9)
Prosoma length : width = 1.2-1.25; opisthosoma short and compact

  11  

- Prosoma length : width = 1.4; opisthosoma longish

  12  

11
(10)
Opisthosoma dorsally leather-like, often with scuticula

Ceratinella

- Opisthosoma not leather-like, always with scuticula

Asthenargus

12
(10)
Basal bristle on tibia I at < 0.15

Walckenaeria

- Basal bristle on tibia I at ± 0.2

Entelecara

13
(9)
Paired tarsal claws with strikingly long comb-like teeth

Walckenaeria

speciesimage
Tarsus with claws
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
- Teeth of paired claws short or missing

  14  

14
(13)
Sternum densely provided with impressed dots

Dicymbium

- Sternum smooth

  15  

15
(14)
Trichobothrium at metatarsus I < 0.55

Entelecara

- Trichobothrium at metatarsus I at 0.6

  16  

16
(15)
Tibia of male pedipalp with divided, bent apophysis and tufts of bristles; epigynal plate with longitudinal bulge

Entelecara

speciesimage
male Tibial apophysis
(Wiehle 1960a)
- Male tibial apophysis undivided; epigyne different

  17  

17
(16)
Male pedipalp with large, bent tibia apophysis; male chelicerae anteriorly with protuberance; epigyne posteriorly with small recess

Gnathonarium

speciesimage
male Tibial apophysis
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
male Prosoma, lateral view
(Wiehle 1960a)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
- Male pedipalp with small, hook-shaped apophysis; epigyne as fig.

Trematocephalus

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
male Prosoma, lateral view
(Locket et al. 1974)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
18
(8)
Trichobothrium on metatarsus I at 0.6-0.8

  19  

- Trichobothrium on metatarsus I > 0.8

  28  

19
(18)
Head region in males with tower-like elevation, in females elevated

Walckenaeria

speciesimage
male Prosoma, lateral view
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
female Prosoma, lateral view
(Wiehle 1960a)
- Different

  20  

20
(19)
Basal bristle on tibia I < 0.2

Trichopterna

- Basal bristle on tibia I > 0.2

  21  

21
(20)
Tibia I with one bristle

  22  

- Tibia I with 2 bristles

  23  

22
(21)
Bristle on tibia I in males < diameter of tibia, in females > diameter of tibia; male prosoma as fig.

Dismodicus

speciesimage
male Prosoma, lateral view
(Wiehle 1960a)
- Male prosoma with bipartite cephalic lobe; tibial apophysis as fig.; bristle on tibia I in females < diameter of tibia

Hypomma

speciesimage
male Prosoma, dorsal view
(Wiehle 1960a)
23
(21)
Male pedipalp with large dorsal apophysis bearing a rounded lateral branch; median part of epigyne approx. circularly extended anteriorly

Walckenaeria

speciesimage
male Tibial apophysis, dorsal view
(Locket et al. 1974)
- Different

  24  

24
(23)
Bristle on tibia IV < diameter of tibia

  25  

- Bristle on tibia IV > diameter of tibia

  26  

25
(24)
Tibia of male pedipalp >> cymbium; median epigynal part as fig.

Tmeticus

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1960a)
- Tibia of male pedipalp ≤ cymbium; median epigynal part different

Baryphyma

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
26
(24)
Embolus short, robust and spiral; epigyne with lateral grooves

Hylyphantes

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
- Different

  27  

27
(26)
Male pedipalp with robust, bent lateral tibial apophysis; median epigynal part twice as wide as long

Gongylidium

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
- Male pedipalp with one to several short dorsal tibial apophysis; median epigynal part ± as long as wide

Oedothorax

speciesimage
male Palpal tibia
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
male Palpal tibia
(Wiehle 1960a)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
28
(18)
Opisthosoma and legs with striking long hairs

Lasiargus

speciesimage
Prosoma, lateral view
(Wiehle 1960a)
- Different

  29  

29
(28)
Dorsal line of prosoma posterior to head region distinctly depressed

  30  

- Dorsal line of prosoma without depression

  31  

30
(29)
Male prosoma strongly elevated and laterally compressed; pedipalp as fig.; median epigynal part distinctly wider than long

Abacoproeces

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1960a)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1960a)
speciesimage
Prosoma, lateral view
(Wiehle 1960a)
- Male prosoma elevated but without lateral depression; male pedipalp different; median epigynal part considerably longer than wide

Metopobactrus

31
(29)
Male prosoma with strongly haired and projecting "nose" or narrow cephalic lobe; receptaculum seminis comma like visible through epigyne; epigyne as fig.

Baryphyma

speciesimage
male Prosoma, lateral view
(Wiehle 1960a)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1960a)
- Different

  32  

32
(31)
Bristle on tibia IV > 1.5 diameter of tibia

  33  

- Bristle on tibia IV < 1.5 diameter of tibia

  34  

33
(32)
Bristle on tibia I at 0.25, on tibia IV at 0.35; male prosoma strongly elevated with deep groove in median part; epigyne as fig.

Peponocranium

speciesimage
male Prosoma
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
- Bristle on tibia I at 0.15, on tibia IV < 0.25; male prosoma without groove; epigyne with X-shaped entrance ducts

Pocadicnemis

speciesimage
male Prosoma, lateral view
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
34
(32)
Legs strikingly orange

  35  

- Legs different

Trichopterna

35
(34)
Ventral tibial bristles > diameter of tibia; embolus with broad membrane; median epigynal plate anteriorly bi-lobed or epigyne strongly sclerotised

Hypselistes

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1960a)
- Ventral tibial bristles < diameter of tibia, embolus different; tibia and patella thickened; epigyne different, e.g. as fig.

Gonatium

speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1960a)
36
(7)
Tibia I dorsally with 1 or 2 bristles

  37  

- Tibia I-II dorsally without bristles; tibia III-IV dorsally with one bristle

Silometopus

37
(36)
Tibia I-III with 2 bristles; tibia IV with one bristle

  38  

- tibial bristles different

  54  

38
(37)
Trichobothria on metatarsus I at ≤ 0.4

  39  

- Trichobothria on metatarsus I at > 0.4

  45  

39
(38)
Eyes very small, partly reduced

Pseudomaro

speciesimage
Prosoma, frontal view
(Saaristo 1971)
- Eyes normally developed

  40  

40
(39)
Distance between posterior median eyes > 2 diameters, male prosoma laterally with horns, bearing bristles (compare also P. inconspicuus); median epigynal part square, trapezoid or a bit longer than wide

Panamomops

speciesimage
male Prosoma, dorsal view
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1960a)
- Distance between posterior median eyes smaller

  41  

41
(40)
Distance between posterior median eyes = diameter

  42  

- Distance of posterior median eyes < diameter

  44  

42
(41)
Body length larger or equal 2.5 mm

  43  

- Body length < 2.0 mm

Typhochrestus

43
(42)
Embolus long and spirally twisted; epigyne posteriorly with broad plate

Lessertia

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1960a)
- Embolus short and straight; epigyne with distinct groove

Collinsia

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
44
(41)
Male pedipalp with very small tibial apophysis; median epigynal part small and triangular

Diplocentria

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1960a)
- Male pedipalp with large, mostly bent apophysis; median epigynal part elongated beyond epigastric furrow

Asthenargus

45
(38)
Margin of prosoma and anterior side of chelicerae with robust teeth

Erigone

- Margin of prosoma different

  46  

46
(45)
Distance between posterior median eyes > diameter

  47  

- Distance between posterior median eyes ≤ diameter

  48  

47
(46)
Distance between posterior median eyes > 2 diameters

Scotinotylus

- Distance between posterior median eyes a bit more than its diameter

Semljicola

48
(46)
Male pedipalp with 2 short tibial apophysis; Epigyne with transverse oval receptaculum seminis, visible through epigyne, taking up almost whole width of epigyne

Diplocentria

speciesimage
male Tibial apophysis
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
- Different

  49  

49
(48)
Short embolus forming a loop next to distal parts of bulbus; epigyne width larger or equal its length

Mecynargus

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1960a)
- Embolus different; epigyne width < length

  50  

50
(49)
Prosoma posterior to eye region distinctly elevated but without lateral depressions

Cinetata

speciesimage
Prosoma, lateral view
(Wiehle 1960a)
- Different

  51  

51
(50)
Male metatarsus I strongly thickened; female prosoma anteriorly with distinct elevation; epigyne as fig.

Erigonoplus

speciesimage
male Leg I
(Wiehle 1960a)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1960a)
- Different

  52  

52
(51)
Male prosoma with bird-head-like process or forwardly protruding cephalic lobe with large lateral depressions; epigynal plate trapezoid

Caracladus

speciesimage
male Prosoma, lateral view
(Thaler 1969)
speciesimage
male Prosoma, lateral view
(Thaler 1973a)
speciesimage
female Epigyne/vulva
(Thaler 1972a)
- Different

  53  

53
(52)
Embolus very short and bent; tibial apophysis large, bent, broadly truncated; median epigynal part triangular posteriorly, tapering into a narrow stalk anteriorly

Semljicola

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1963b)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1963b)
- Embolus longer and twisted; tibial apophysis smaller; epigyne different

Mecopisthes

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Miller 1966)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Millidge 1978)
54
(37)
Tibia I-II with 2 bristles, tibia III-IV with one bristle

  55  

- All tibiae with one bristle

  70  

55
(54)
Trichobothrium on metatarsus I at < 0.4

  56  

- Trichobothrium on metatarsus I at ≥ 0.4

  61  

56
(55)
Prosoma and sternum with numerous impressed dots

Lophomma

- Prosoma and sternum without impressed dots

  57  

57
(56)
Embolus long and band-shaped; epigyne with large groove, anteriorly bipartite or with chitinous wall

  58  

- Embolus shorter; epigyne different

  59  

58
(57)
Male prosoma with lateral depressions; vulva with short, bent entrance ducts

Micrargus

- Male prosoma without lateral depressions; entrance ducts very long and spirally twisted

Lessertinella

59
(57)
Embolus very short; epigyne as fig.

Jacksonella

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
- Embolus longer, slightly bent or twisted; epigynal plate reaching beyond epigastric furrow

  60  

60
(59)
Male pedipalp without distinctly marked off tibial apophysis; epigyne as fig.

Mioxena

speciesimage
male Tibial apophysis
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
- Male pedipalp different; epigyne different

Carorita

61
(55)
Trichobothrium on metatarsus I at approx. 0.4

  62  

- Trichobothrium on metatarsus I at > 0.45

  66  

62
(61)
Male prosoma laterally with a tuft of hairs on each side

Saloca

speciesimage
male Prosoma, lateral view
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
- Different

  63  

63
(62)
Embolus very long, spirally twisted; epigyne slit-like

  64  

- Different

  65  

64
(63)
Distance between posterior median eyes > 2 diameters

Araeoncus

- Distance between posterior median eyes ± diameter

Metapanamomops

65
(63)
Male pedipalp with very small tibial apophysis; embolus relatively long; epigyne simple, reaching beyond epigastric furrow

Caviphantes

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
- Male pedipalp different; tibial apophysis large; embolus short and robust; epigyne complex, not reaching beyond epigastric furrow

Gongylidiellum

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
66
(61)
Sternum with impressed dots

Erigonella

- Sternum smooth

  67  

67
(66)
Trichobothrium on metatarsus I at ≥ 0.55; male prosoma posterior to eyes with deep depression; epigyne as fig.

Notioscopus

speciesimage
male Prosoma, lateral view
(Wiehle 1960a)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1960a)
- Trichobothrium on metatarsus I at < 0.55; male prosoma and epigyne different

  68  

68
(67)
Male prosoma tower-like elevated in the area of anterior median eyes

Savignia

speciesimage
male Prosoma, lateral view
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
- Different

  69  

69
(68)
Basal bristle on tibia IV at < 0.15

Glyphesis

- Basal bristle on tibia IV at ≥ 0.3

Diplocephalus

70
(54)
Trichobothrium on metatarsus I at < 0.5

  71  

- Trichobothrium on metatarsus I at > 0.5

  76  

71
(70)
Sternum with impressed dots

  72  

- Sternum smooth

  73  

72
(71)
Bristle on tibia I at 0.2; cymbium with short row of bristles; embolus very long; epigyne with ± transverse oval plate

Cnephalocotes

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1960a)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1960a)
- Bristle on tibia I at 0.1; cymbium different; embolus shorter; epigyne different

Troxochrus

73
(71)
Tibia dark; male pedipalp with 2 short and one very long, sickle-shaped tibial apophysis; epigyne with distinct median epigynal plate, not strongly protruding towards posterior end

Trichoncus

speciesimage
male Palpal tibia
(Locket et al. 1974)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1960a)
- Different

  74  

74
(73)
Eyes of normal size; distance between posterior median eyes = diameter

  75  

- Eyes very small; distance between posterior median eyes > 3 diameters

Acartauchenius

75
(74)
Bristle on tibia IV > diameter of tibia; male prosoma elevated and with lateral depression; epigyne reaching beyond epigastric furrow

Minyriolus

- Bristle on tibia IV < diameter of tibia; male prosoma different; epigyne not reaching beyond epigastric furrow

Microctenonyx

76
(70)
Trichobothrium on metatarsus I at 0.5-0.65

  77  

- Trichobothrium on metatarsus I at > 0.7

  84  

77
(76)
Clypeus nose-like protruding, in females less pronounced; epigyne with strongly sclerotised, triangular plate

Troxochrus

- Different

  78  

78
(77)
Prosoma dorsally with radial rows of impressed dots; opisthosoma with dorsal scuticula (in females often missing)

Pelecopsis

- Prosoma without impressed dots

  79  

79
(78)

Male pedipalp with broad, band-shaped embolus; median epigynal part distinctly divided into anterior and posterior plate; receptaculum seminis at each side of posterior plate

Styloctetor

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
- Different

  80  

80
(79)
Male head region elevated; anterior epigynal margin with small pocket

Thyreosthenius

speciesimage
male Prosoma, lateral view
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
- Different

  81  

81
(80)
Median epigynal part wider than long; male pedipalp with long apophysis

  82  

- Eyes large; distance between posterior median eyes ≤ 2 diameters; male pedipalp with short tibial apophysis; length of median epigynal part ≥ its width

  83  

82
(81)
Male pedipalp and epigyne as fig.

Tiso

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wiehle 1960a)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
- Male pedipalp as fig.; posterior epigynal margin with 2 sclerotised arcs

Evansia

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
83
(81)
Embolus very long and thin; anterior epigynal margin indented

Tapinocyboides

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1960a)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1960a)
- Embolus short and thick; epigyne different

Tapinocyba

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Wiehle 1960a)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
84
(76)
Legs and prosoma dark orange; body length > 2 mm

Hypomma

- Legs and prosoma different in colour; body length < 2 mm

Silometopus

85
(1)
Tibia I with one or several lateral bristles

  86  

- Tibia I without lateral bristles

  114  

86
(85)
Legs long and thin; femur I and IV mostly > prosoma; length of tibia I = 10 diameters

  87  

- Legs shorter and stouter; femur I and IV < prosoma; length of tibia I at most 7 diameters

  106  

87
(86)
Anterior cheliceral furrow margin with 5-6 long, robust denticles

  88  

- Anterior cheliceral furrow margin with 4 small denticles at most

  90  

88
(87)
Anterior side of chelicera with 3-4 robust bristles

Drapetisca

speciesimage
Chelicerae, frontal view
(Wiehle 1956)
- Anterior side of chelicera without bristles

  89  

89
(88)
Clypeus not higher than diameter of anterior median eyes; anterior cheliceral furrow margin with 3 long and 2 shorter denticles

Tapinopa

speciesimage
male Prosoma, frontal view
(Wiehle 1956)
- Clypeus higher than diameter of anterior median eyes; anterior cheliceral furrow margin with 5 equally long, robust denticles; opisthosoma bulged

Floronia

speciesimage
male Prosoma, lateral view
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
Prosoma, frontal view
(Wiehle 1956)
90
(87)
Metatarsus without bristles

  91  

- At least metatarsus I with dorsal bristle

  93  

91
(90)
Male pedipalp considerably longer than wide; epigyne with very long scapus

Diplostyla

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
- Different

  92  

92
(91)
Femur I-II with dorsal spines; femur III and IV without spines

Kaestneria

- Spines on femora different or femur without dorsal spines

Bathyphantes

93
(90)
Distance between posterior median eyes and posterior lateral eyes < 0.5 diameter of posterior median eyes

Taranucnus

- Distance between posterior median eyes and posterior lateral eyes > 0.5 diameter of posterior median eyes

  94  

94
(93)
Legs with small, sharply margined spots; femur ventrally spotted with black (not annulated); prosoma with broad, black Y-shaped pattern

Pityohyphantes

- Legs with different pattern; femur ventrally without black spots; Y-like pattern on prosoma indistinct or missing

  95  

95
(94)
Opisthosoma ventrally with sharply margined white spots anterior to spinnerets

Labulla

- Different

  96  

96
(95)
Distance between anterior median eyes ≥ diameter; opisthosoma with grey markings

Stemonyphantes

- Distance between anterior median eyes < diameter; opisthosoma different

  97  

97
(96)
Paracymbium complex; epigyne complex, reaching beyond epigastric furrow and / or folded scapus

  101  

- Paracymbium simple; epigyne simple; scapus not folded or missing

  98  

98
(97)
Male pedipalp with long embolus; terminal part hair-like; epigyne very small or covered or distinctly divided into two parts by median septum

  99  

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
- Embolus short, terminal part not hair-like; epigyne with a large, undivided depression

Neriene

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
99
(98)
Terminal part of embolus covered by a membrane; epigyne with a large, bipartite groove

Linyphia

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
- Embolus almost entirely visible, epigynal groove very small, triangular or covered

  100  

100
(99)
The posterior median eyes with broad, black rings; femur with spines; male opisthosoma dorsally on 1/5 of its length with bright white spots; tip of embolus a long, free loop; paracymbium small; epigynal groove very small, triangular with very small scapus or with 2 small epigynal grooves, separated by a short, broad scapus

Microlinyphia

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1995)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
- The posterior median eyes with narrow, black rings; femur without spines; embolus not a long, free loop; paracymbium as long as wide; epigynal area swollen, with slit-like openings

Frontinellina

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
101
(97)
Head region in males and females forwardly elongated, bristled

Bolyphantes

- Head region different

  102  

102
(101)
Femur I with dorsal bristles

  103  

- Femur I without dorsal bristles

  104  

103
(102)
Gnathocoxae longer than width of its base

Troglohyphantes

- Gnathocoxae as long as wide

Centromerita

104
(102)
Embolus very short; scapus folded

(Additional remark: compare also Troglohyphantes lucifugus)

Lepthyphantes

- Embolus long scapus not folded; epigyne reaching beyond epigastric furrow

  105  

105
(104)
Tibia IV distally with bristle; opisthosoma without spots

Allomengea

- Tibia IV distally without bristles; opisthosoma with dark spots (maybe indistinct)

Helophora

106
(86)
Metatarsus IV with trichobothria

  107  

- Metatarsus IV without trichobothria

  109  

107
(106)
Trichobothrium on metatarsus I at 0.55

Leptorhoptrum

- Trichobothrium on metatarsus I at > 0.55

  108  

108
(107)
Distance between posterior eyes < diameter; length of basal bristle on tibia IV = 1.5 diameter of tibia I

Microneta

- Distance between posterior eyes > diameter; length of basal bristle on tibia IV greater or equal 2 diameters of tibia I

Hilaira

109
(106)
Trichobothrium on metatarsus I at 0.25

  110  

- Trichobothrium on metatarsus I at ≥ 0.3

  111  

110
(109)
Coxae IV separated by more than their diameter; cymbium of male pedipalp with square-edged protrusions; epigyne at most 1.5x as wide as long; epigynal median plate with parallel sides

Theonina

speciesimage
male Pedipalp, ventral view
(Wiehle 1956)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Wiehle 1956)
-

Coxae IV separated by less than their diameter; male pedipalp different; epigyne approx. twice as wide as long

Meioneta
=Agyneta

111
(109)
Trichobothrium on metatarsus I at 0.3-0.4

  112  

- Trichobothrium on metatarsus I at ≥ 0.5

Drepanotylus

112
(111)
Tibia I laterally anteriorly and posteriorly with bristle

Porrhomma

- Tibia I only laterally anteriorly with bristle

  113  

113
(112)
Male pedipalp with ± square paracymbium and distinct, small embolus; epigyne simple and without scapus

Aphileta

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
- Male pedipalp different; epigyne with scapus

Oreonetides

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
- Male pedipalp different; epigyne with scapus

Saaristoa

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
114
(85)
Length of femur I ± length of prosoma; length of metatarsus I = length of tibia I; opisthosoma with striking black and white pattern

Poeciloneta

speciesimage
Habitus
(Wiehle 1956)
- Different

  115  

115
(114)
Metatarsus IV with trichobothria

  116  

- Metatarsus IV without trichobothria

  122  

116
(115)
Trichobothrium on metatarsus I at < 0.7

  117  

- Trichobothrium on metatarsus I at > 0.7

  120  

117
(116)
Dorsal line of prosoma posterior to eyes deeply depressed; length of basal bristle on tibia I = diameter of tibia I

Agyneta

- Dorsal line straight; basal bristle on tibia I longer

  118  

118
(117)
Basal bristle on tibia I approx. 1.5 diameter of tibia I; male pedipalp with long tibial apophysis; epigyne as fig.

Sciastes

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
speciesimage
female Vulva
(Heimer & Nentwig 1991)
- Basal bristle on tibia I longer or equal 2 diameter of tibia I; tibial apophysis of male pedipalp different or missing; epigyne different

  119  

119
(118)
Diameter of posterior median eyes > diameter of posterior lateral eyes; male pedipalp without tibial apophysis; epigyne as fig.

Syedra

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
- Diameter of posterior median eyes = diameter of posterior lateral eyes; male pedipalp with small tibial apophysis; epigyne different

Halorates

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
120
(116)
Body length smaller or equal 2.5 mm; trichobothria of metatarsi mostly bent or angled

Agyneta

- Body length > 3.5 mm; trichobothria of metatarsi always straight

  121  

121
(120)
Colouration light; opisthosoma with dark pattern (maybe indistinct); diameter of anterior lateral eyes = diameter of anterior median eyes

Donacochara

speciesimage
Chelicerae, frontal view
(Wiehle 1956)
speciesimage
Habitus
(Wiehle 1956)
- Colouration dark; opisthosoma unicoloured; diameter of anterior lateral eyes = 2 diameter of anterior median eyes

Leptothrix

speciesimage
female Prosoma, frontal view
(Locket & Millidge 1953)
122
(115)
Striking yellowish red colouration; around spinnerets black; male pedipalp and epigyne as fig.

Ostearius

speciesimage
male Pedipalp
(Roberts 1987)
speciesimage
female Epigyne
(Roberts 1987)
- Different

  123  

123
(122)
Metatarsus I-III with dorsal bristle

  124  

- Metatarsus I-III without dorsal bristle

  125  

124
(123)

Posterior eyes very large, touching each other; tarsus with dorsal bristle

Meioneta
=Agyneta

- Posterior eyes small, distinctly separated; tarsus without bristle

Centromerus

125
(123)

Trichobothrium on metatarsus I at 0.25

Meioneta
=Agyneta

- Trichobothrium on metatarsus I at 0.35-0.5

  126  

126
(125)
Body length > 2.5 mm; length of tarsus I < length of metatarsus I

Macrargus

- Body length < 1.6 mm; length of tarsus I = length of metatarsus I

Maro

Further genera

1Abiskoa
2Agnyphantes
3Alioranus
4Allotiso
5Anguliphantes
6Antrohyphantes
7Archaraeoncus
8Arcterigone
9Birgerius
10Bisetifer
11Bolephthyphantes
12Bordea
13Canariphantes
14Caucasopisthes
15Centrophantes
16Ceraticelus
17Cresmatoneta
18Crosbyarachne
19Dactylopisthes
20Decipiphantes
21Diastanillus
22Didectoprocnemis
23Dresconella
24Estrandia
25Fageiella
26Flagelliphantes
27Formiphantes
28Gibothorax
29Heterotrichoncus
30Horcotes
31Hybauchenidium
32Hybocoptus
33Hypsocephalus
34Iberoneta
35Icariella
36Improphantes
37Incestophantes
38Ipa
39Islandiana
40Janetschekia
41Karita
42Kikimora
43Kratochviliella
44Maculoncus
45Mansuphantes
46Masikia
47Megalepthyphantes
48Mermessus
49Mesasigone
50Midia
51Moebelia
52Monocephalus
53Monocerellus
54Mughiphantes
55Mycula
56Nematogmus
57Nothophantes
58Nusoncus
59Obscuriphantes
60Oreoneta
61Oryphantes
62Ouedia
63Palliduphantes
64Paraglyphesis
65Parapelecopsis
66Pecado
67Perregrinus
68Perro
69Piniphantes
70Plaesianillus
71Plesiophantes
72Praestigia
73Prinerigone
74Proislandiana
75Pseudocarorita
76Pseudocyba
77Russocampus
78Sauron
79Scandichrestus
80Scotargus
81Scutpelecopsis
82Sibirocyba
83Silometopoides
84Sisicus
85Tallusia
86Tanasevitchia
87Tarsiphantes
88Tenuiphantes
89Thaleria
90Thaumatoncus
91Tibiaster
92Tibioploides
93Tibioplus
94Trichoncoides
95Trichoncyboides
96Trichopternoides
97Troxochrota
98Tubercithorax
99Turinyphia
100Typhlonyphia
101Uralophantes
102Viktorium
103Wabasso
104Walckenaerianus
105Wiehlea
106Wiehlenarius
107Wubanoides
108Zornella