Family: Eresidae C. L. Koch, 1845 | key
Genus: Eresus Walckenaer, 1805 | key
    Taxonomy
    WSC: Species ext
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    araneae
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    caucasus-spiders.info ext
    SPIDOnet.gr ext Arachno.Piwigo by P. Oger ext

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    Eresus kollari Rossi, 1846      [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:041642]
    Description

    Conductor distally short and blunt, distal furrow shallow. Vulva anteriorly broad, entrance ducts strongly lobed. Body jumping-spider-like, males contrastingly coloured. Prosoma black, female: black, head region mostly provided with yellow hairs. Male: black. Legs short and robust. Female: black, provided with bluish light grey hairs. Male: black or reddish, annulated with white, III and IV with red hairs. Opisthosoma female: appears velvety black due to shiny hairs. Male: dorsally shiny red with 2 pairs of large and one pair of small, black spots (often margined white), laterally and ventrally black.

    Body length male: 8-11 mm, Body length female: 9-16 mm

    Additional information

    in colonies in burrows of up to 10 cm depth (1 cm diameter), covered by small shield- or funnel-like web. Female carries lens-shaped cocoon (8-10 mm diameter, approximately 65-100 eggs) to sunny places during the day. Hatching juveniles stay in the female's burrow and feed on her after her death.

    This species can bite humans. A bite into a finger caused pain, spreading to the axilla, with fever-like symptoms and an increased heart rate. After one hour the patient had partially recovered and after 2 hours the symptoms had alleviated, but a strong headache lasted for one day and the finger remained sensitive for several days.
    Rare

    Distribution
      Presence
      No data

    Global distribution (World Spider Catalog 2017): Europe to Central Asia

    Phenology

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    male female
    Figures

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    References

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    Bayram A, Kunt K B, Danişman T (2014) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2014, online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info

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    Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S (2015) The Spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 09.03.2015)

    Braendegaard J (1966) Edderkopper: Eller Spindlere I Danmarks Fauna 72: 1-224.

    Heimer S, Nentwig W (1991) Spinnen Mitteleuropas. Paul Parey Berlin

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    Locket G H, Millidge A F (1951) British Spiders 1. Ray Soc London

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    Miller J A, Griswold C E, Scharff N, Rezác M, Szüts T, Marhabaie M (2012) The velvet spiders: an atlas of the Eresidae (Arachnida, Araneae). ZooKeys 195: 1-144.

    Nentwig W, Gnädinger M, Fuchs J, Ceschi A (2013) A two year study of verified spider bites in Switzerland and a review of the European spider bite literature. Toxicon 73: 104-110.

    Otto S (2015) Caucasian Spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus. Version 1.4.3. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

    Pantini P, Isaia M (2016) Checklist of the Italian spiders (version April 2016). online at http://www.museoscienzebergamo.it/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=96&Itemid=94

    Ratschker U M, Bellmann H (1995) Zur Bestimmung der mitteleuropäischen Arten der Gattung Eresus Walckenaer 1805 (Arachnida: Araneae: Eresidae). Beitr Araneol 4: 217-218.

    Rezác M, Pekár S, Johannesen J (2008a) Taxonomic review and phylogenetic analysis of central European Eresus species (Araneae: Eresidae). Zool Scripta 37: 263-287.

    Roberts M J (1998) Spinnengids. Tirion Natuur Baarn, Netherlands

    van Helsdingen P J (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

    Wiehle H (1953) Spinnentiere oder Arachnoidea (Araneae), IX. Orthognatha-Cribellata-Haplogynae, Entelegynae (Pholcidae, Zodariidae, Oxyopidae, Mimetidae, Nesticidae). Tierwelt Deutschlands 42.

    World Spider Catalog (2017) World Spider Catalog, version 18.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch, accessed on 23.01.2017