Family: Theridiidae Sundevall, 1833 | key
Genus: Latrodectus Walckenaer, 1805 | key
    Taxonomy
    WSC: Species ext
    Photo gallery
    araneae
    Resources
    caucasus-spiders.info ext
    SPIDOnet.gr ext Arachno.Piwigo by P. Oger ext

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    Latrodectus tredecimguttatus (Rossi, 1790)      [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:007826]
    Description male

    Colouration as in female, but opisthosomal blotches whitish.

    Body length male: 4-7 mm

    Description female

    Vulva: spermathecae contiguous. Prosoma black, glossy, slightly longer than wide. Prosoma 3-5.2 mm long. Legs black, glossy. Opisthosoma black, dorsally with 3 longitudinal series of red blotches, sometimes these blotches are absent and the opisthosoma is entirely black, ventrally with a red blotch behind epigastric furrow, opisthosoma covered with both long hairs and short bifid hairs.

    Body length female: 7-15 mm

    Additional information

    In dry habitats, dunes, sandy beaches, shingle beaches and on low vegetation.

    This species can bite humans, as also all other Latrodectus species in the world. Often, a bite causes significant effects, with severe and long-lasting pain in two-thirds of cases, preventing patients from sleeping in one-third of cases. Pain increases in more than half of the cases within the first hour and mostly radiates into the limbs or abdominal pain develops. Typical symptoms include sweating in about 70% of cases and further systemic effects in 20–30% of cases (nausea and vomiting in less than 20%, raised temperature and neuromuscular effects in about 10%, hypertension in less than 10% of cases). Pain usually lasts 1–2 days and the other symptoms 1–4 days. In Europe, bites have become very rare in the last decades. If needed, a symptomatic medical treatment is recommended.

    Distribution
      Presence
      No data

    Global distribution (World Spider Catalog 2017): Mediterranean to China

    Phenology

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    male female
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    References

    Bayram A, Kunt K B, Danişman T (2014) The checklist of the spiders of Turkey. Version 2014, online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info

    Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S (2015) The Spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 09.03.2015)

    Brignoli P M (1967c) Notizie sui Theridiidae del Lazio (Araneae). Fragm ent 4: 177-197.

    Brignoli P M (1984a) Ragni di Grecia XII. Nuovi dati su varie famiglie (Araneae). Revue suisse Zool 91: 281-321.

    Isbister G K, White J (2004) Clinical consequences of spider bites: recent advances in our understanding. Toxicon 43: 477–492.

    Le Peru B (2011) The spiders of Europe, a synthesis of data: Volume 1 Atypidae to Theridiidae. Mém Soc Linn Lyon 2: 1-522.

    Levy G (1998c) Araneae: Theridiidae. In Fauna Palaestina, Arachnida III. Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.

    Nentwig W, Gnädinger M, Fuchs J, Ceschi A (2013) A two year study of verified spider bites in Switzerland and a review of the European spider bite literature. Toxicon 73: 104-110.

    Otto S (2015) Caucasian Spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus. Version 1.4.3. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

    Pantini P, Isaia M (2016) Checklist of the Italian spiders (version April 2016). online at http://www.museoscienzebergamo.it/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=96&Itemid=94

    van Helsdingen P J (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

    World Spider Catalog (2017) World Spider Catalog, version 18.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch, accessed on 23.01.2017