Family: Araneidae Clerck, 1757 | key
Genus: Nuctenea Simon, 1864 | key
    Taxonomy
    WSC: Species ext
    Photo gallery
    araneae
    Resources
    caucasus-spiders.info ext
    SPIDOnet.gr ext Arachno.Piwigo by P. Oger ext

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    Nuctenea umbratica (Clerck, 1757)      [urn:lsid:nmbe.ch:spidersp:016784]
    Description

    Male palp with median apophysis ending pointed. Epigyne with spoon-shaped scapus. Prosoma reddish dark brown. Opisthosoma extremely flat and uniformly reddish dark brown to almost black. Dark folium margined by narrow, yellowish line. Sides only slightly brighter than folium, mostly reddish brown.

    Body length male: 7.5 mm, Body length female: 14-16 mm

    Additional information

    Very often on trees and buildings in narrow crevices.

    This species can bite humans. The bite is not very painful and pain disappears after a few minutes.

    Distribution
      Presence
      No data

    Global distribution (World Spider Catalog 2017): Europe to Azerbaijan

    Phenology

    JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
    male female
    Figures

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    References

    Bayram A, Kunt K B, Danişman T (2014) The Checklist of the Spiders of Turkey. Version 2014, online at http://www.spidersofturkey.info

    Blagoev G, Deltshev C, Lazarov S (2015) The Spiders (Araneae) of Bulgaria. National Museum of Natural History, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, online at http://www.nmnhs.com/spiders-bulgaria/ (accessed on 09.03.2015)

    Kostanjšek R, Kuntner M (2015) Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist. ZooKeys 474: 1-91.

    Lissner J (2016c) A small study of the Corsican spider and pseudoscorpion fauna (Araneae, Pseudoscorpiones). Nieuwsbrief SPINED 36: 5-15.

    Locket G H, Millidge A F (1953) British Spiders 2. Ray Soc London

    Loksa I (1972) Pokok II-Araneae II. Fauna Hungariae 109: 3.1-3.112.

    Løvbrekke H (unpubl.)

    Nentwig W, Gnädinger M, Fuchs J, Ceschi A (2013) A two year study of verified spider bites in Switzerland and a review of the European spider bite literature. Toxicon 73: 104-110.

    Otto S (2015) Caucasian Spiders. A faunistic database on the spiders of the Caucasus. Version 1.4.3. Internet: caucasus-spiders.info.

    Pantini P, Isaia M (2016) Checklist of the Italian spiders (version April 2016). online at http://www.museoscienzebergamo.it/web/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=96&Itemid=94

    Roberts M J (1995) Spiders of Britain and Northern Europe. Collins Field Guide Bath

    van Helsdingen P J (2010a) Araneae. In: Fauna Europaea Database (Version 2010.1), online at www.european-arachnology.org

    van Helsdingen P J (2013) A quick scan of the spider fauna of the European part of Turkey. Nieuwsbrief SPINED 33: 29-38.

    Wiehle H (1931) Spinnentiere oder Arachnoidea, VI. 27: Familie Araneidae. Tierwelt Deutschlands 23.

    World Spider Catalog (2017) World Spider Catalog, version 18.0. Natural History Museum Bern, online at http://wsc.nmbe.ch, accessed on 23.01.2017